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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Disparity between the 34 cities surveyed was still greater, as the the average bonus of over Rmb15,800 in Beijing was more than triple the lowest-paying city of Shenyang, the provincial capital Liaoning located in China’s northeastern rust belt.

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[k?n'gr?tju.leit]
单词triangle 联想记忆:
n. 比赛,竞争,竞赛

When asked if the central bank would do more, Dario Perkins, chief European economist at Lombard Street Research, said: “I don’t think so, unless something goes wrong in the wider global economy.”
In this Sept. 18, 1990, file photo, Steve Jobs, president and CEO of NeXT Computer Inc., shows off his company's new NeXTstation after an introduction to the public in San Francisco
GDP growth of around 6.5 percent, or higher if possible in practice.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

张大伟:主要热点城市房价将出现10%以上下调空间

1.Bladeless Fans
Whatever she needs to invoke the weightlessness of life in our new not-normal, she takes. "Is it the end of an era? Is it the end of America?" she intones in "When the World Was at War We Kept Dancing." "No, it's only the beginning."
[spu:n]

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

当时,Spielman正在耶路撒冷Emek Tzurim国家公园橄榄山的斜坡上检查泥土。突然就注意到了这个小小的矩形物件。
亚太地区票房增长了13%,是推动国际票房增长的主力,而中国贡献了整个亚太地区近半票房。
The US has overtaken India as the leading user of anti-dumping and other trade defence cases, with China and its steel sector the biggest target, according to research.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Interestingly, a survey found Beijing was thought to be the most congested city in China, among 31.8 percent of respondents, followed by Zhengzhou at 8.8 percent.
  • 截至2018年底 深圳公积金累计缴存总额3112.23亿元
  • Zhang's piece is “so lush and so rich and so full and so complete,” Google Doodle team leader Ryan Germick told the Washington Post. “Every leaf seemed to have life in it.”
  • 李克强:政府的改革不是老给市场下指令做什么
  • 8个词,数尽中国家具8年沉浮
  • 会。梅因为失算的提前选举而失去了大部分权威。但过去几个月情况对她较为有利。敲定退欧离婚协议,确保了她的饭碗短期无忧。因此直到2019年英国退欧正式完成(或者另一种更吸引人的替代方案出现)前,保守党将让她继续坐在首相位置上。留欧派和退欧派都希望避免因反对她而引发内战。事实将证明,曾经被人们认为是坐不长的位置,意外地能够坐久。
    《少年收容所》(Short Term 12)是独立制片的小型影片之一,然而却会大大地影响观众。这部低成本电影片长仅96分钟,背景是一个针对问题青少年的收容设施。然而德斯汀?克里顿(Destin Cretton)的导演和布里?拉尔森(Brie Larson)的表演让这部电影跻身年度最佳影片之列。拉尔森几乎可以肯定无缘奥斯卡奖(今年的竞争异常激烈),但她对所扮演的女主角格蕾丝(Grace)的刻画极具水准,格蕾丝是一名20多岁的年轻保育员,她自己的生活远非平静无波。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 中国社科院学部委员李扬: 推进金融供给侧改革六大方向, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

破解长租公寓盈利困局 资产证券化料成突破口

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

全国二手房量增价稳刚需入市 一二手房价格严重倒挂

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 3、消极
    超级大碗
  • 5. bedazzled / a . 眼花缭乱的。
    An early iteration of Summly, called Trimit, was featured in Apple's app store in July 2011 on a list of new and noteworthy offerings. There it was noticed by the influential Silicon Valley blog TechCrunch and quickly came to the attention of an investment group led by Li Ka-shing. When D'Aloisio was approached over email by Li's people at Horizons Ventures, he was only 15-and so far mostly managed to conceal that fact. He'd never met with anyone in the tech world face to face, and the information he'd listed when he registered Trimit spoke only vaguely of a London technology company. It failed to mention that the company's management and technology teams-in fact, its entire workforce-consisted of a single kid in a suburban bedroom who wasn't yet old enough to drive.
    根据花旗居屋(Citi Habitats)提供的数据,在布鲁克林拟于明年投放市场的6527套新出租屋中,有1442套分布在贝德福德-斯图文森(Bedford-Stuyvesant)、布什维克(Bushwick)和克林顿山(Clinton Hill)。就在不久前,这些社区都还被视为不热门的地区。
    “Cooling measures [are] the most important issue affecting the [residential] property market in Hong Kong,” says Thomas Lam, head of valuation at Knight Frank. “That is why all the major institutional plans are looking at the office market in the past two or three years.”
    “…was asked ttell the interviewer a little about herself, and didn’t have anything tsay.”

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 房价过快上涨得到抑制 为何地产投资增速加快
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 深圳住房供不应求 临深区域年购房超5万套

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

The artefact which has a flat base was found inside an ancient tomb in the Xuyi County in western Jiangsu in 2009. It has been kept at the Nanjing Museum the capital of Jiangsu Province.
鉴于之前许多邦女郎在007电影中如昙花般一现,随后便星途黯淡,玛尔洛和经纪人正努力确保她与众多一流演员合作,正如邦德电影是用来为她的国际演艺生涯铺路一样。
然而,在开始攻读EMBA课程之前,男女学员之间已然存在巨大的薪资差距,女性平均薪资较男性低15%,女性和男性的这个数字分别为11.1万美元和12.8万美元。
樟宜机场的三座航站楼配有两个24小时电影院免费放映最近上映的大片,一个露天游泳池和一个蝴蝶花园。
May the bright and festive glow of New Year candle warm the days all the year through. Hoping you will have a wonderful time enjoying New Year that is happy in every way.愿明亮喜庆的新年烛光温暖一年中的每个日日夜夜,祝你欢欢喜喜度新年!
There are two divergent views of what is happening to the oil price ithin the industry and among serious investors. 2016 may help us to see which is correct.
与此同时,有一首非常有意思的歌曲来自我们的读者Libby Russell,是她为所有世界杯期间的足球寡妇所作。非常感谢Libby的分享,太棒了!

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Graham Allison, the famous Harvard professor, also warned that east Asia was headed towards the “Thucydides Trap”, adding: “When a rapidly rising power rivals an established ruling power, trouble ensues.” In early 2013, the then prime minister of Luxembourg, Jean-Claude Juncker, warned that 2013 was looking dangerously like 1913. The Economist also warned at the end of 2013, “A century on, there are uncomfortable parallels with the era that led to the outbreak of the first world war.”
  • 家装呈现五大特点 装饰五金更趋智能化
  • Barack Obama went on the offensive over foreign policy in the third and final presidential debate, repeatedly accusing Mitt Romney of flip-flopping on major international issues but failing to deliver a killer blow to his opponent's resurgent campaign.
    2.SpaceX demonstrates a big step towards fully reusable space craft
  • 如何辨识建材环保标志
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 8. 不论何时开始都不算晚。
    近几十年来,很少有年份像2014年那样一开始就充满那么多的悲观情绪。对2014年的预测贯穿了一个主题,即这一年看起来与1914年相似得让人害怕。大多数学者的预测都是悲观和令人沮丧的,尤其是对于东亚。然而,虽然发生了许多可怕的事件——从马航MH17航班在乌克兰坠落,到尼日利亚数百女学生被绑架,以及“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国”(Isis)的崛起——但我们避免了全面的世界大战。现在,2014年已结束,没有重现1914年的悲剧。探究为什么这些学者预测错了(特别是他们认为亚洲存在冲突可能性的想法)或许是明智的。
  • 4.Candice Swanepoel
    "I don't know what happened," Lowry said. "I just know I got a call for offensive foul. It happens. It's the NBA. That's all I can say about it."
  • IMD and Iese Business Schools have tightened their grip on the top spots of the twin FT executive education rankings, monopolising first and second places for both open-enrolment and customised programmes.
    adj. 投影的,投射 v. 投射(project的过去
  • 但是通常你可以选择匿名求职,Fos说,或者要么就拒绝那个选项坚持在领英上面发布,她补充道这样至少更易被招聘者和经理发现。
    Thirty Seconds of Mars, who are fronted by American actor Jared Leto, took home the Best Alternative award, which also saw Lana Del Rey, Lorde, The XX and Imagine.
    根据迪拜政府的最新预测,在迪拜旅游的游客今年将消费313亿美元,远远超过伦敦游客消费的198亿美元。伦敦在游客消费榜单中排名第二。
  • We'll start our review with the South American nations, and who else could we begin with, but the hosts Brazil. Rewind 18 months and they looked like they'd be struggling, but the appointment of 'Big Phil' Scolari has been inspired, and he's brought a belief to the team that was previously missing. Last years 3:0 demolition of Spain in the Confederations Cup final shocked many experts, and all of a sudden the Brazilians have expectations on them. Whilst you can't argue with that scoreline, we still wonder if Brazil have the firepower to win such a long tournament. Neymar is expected to conjure up the magic, but they're relying on Fred to come up with the goals. No disrepect to Fred, but the last two Brazilian teams to win the World Cup, in 2002 and 1994, could count on the likes of Ronaldo and Romario to lead the front line, two genuine legends of the game.
    The report said families back home receive an average of $200 a month, which makes up 60 percent of the household income.Using the steady flow of remittances, families can buy food, get housing, go to school, access healthcare, improve sanitation, or even invest in a business and have some savings, the report said.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 湖南省住建厅:将发布房地产行业“红黑名单” shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

广州二手住宅上半年成交下降 价格平稳

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

房地产业“服务生”拼出专业“颜值”

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

建材“跨界”“融合”是智能还是伪智能时代?

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

三亚实行商品房网签新规:当月销售当月网签 逾期不再办理

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 维尔德斯在周一晚上的电视辩论中呼吁荷兰将土耳其大使驱逐出境。
  • 今年3月,福特以16亿美元将沃尔沃卖给中国吉利汽车,从此退出豪华汽车市场。虽然这是一个巨大损失——福特11年前购买沃尔沃这家瑞典汽车制造商花了60亿美元——但2009年福特实现了27亿美元的利润,是2005年以来首次盈利。受惠于“旧车换现金”计划(更不要说丰田的加速器问题了),今年2月福特重新占据了美国最大汽车制造商的宝座。这也是为什么福特首席执行官阿兰?穆拉里能够将目光投向国外,如印度这样的大市场,在印度推出了紧凑车型Figo。
  • 海南:前9月房地产投资增速2.5% 连续4月回落

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • “为什么这件事发生在我女儿身上?”她说,“因为枪支造成的死亡太多了,我不知道还要死多少人。”
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Belgium
    opposed
    The report notes that China's game developers have been considering subscription models since earlier this year. Among the top 10 games, four are subscription-based titles and two were commercially launched this year, including Shanda Interactive Entertainment Ltd.'s (SNDA) major new title, AION. The Cnzz.com says that a shift to the subscription model would be more likely to create a sense of equity and fairness in the games, because the top players would be those who spend the most time playing, instead of those who spend the most.
  • 《我无法忘记那天晚上和他在一起时发生的事》(‘I Could Not Forget What Happened to Me That Night With Him’)

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 不要误以为最后时刻的风平浪静就意味着截止期限前的动作是平淡无奇的:
  • 严重扰乱房地产市场秩序 泉城新天地置业有限公司被通报
  • The number of people living in poverty in rural areas was reduced by 12.4 million.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 190套大套型公租房今起登记
  • Household substance abuse
  • 上海:光鲜建材城背后藏违建
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

深圳新房供应放量 降价传导至二手房

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 今年青海省力争实现农牧民危旧房改造“清零”
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 东海利用大数据改革办证流程 二手房交易一小时内领证
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

outrage

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

“That’s the difference between tweeting from your couch and governing the country. If you govern the country, you have to take sensible decisions, and that isn’t sensible,” Mr Rutte replied.
最佳男歌手:杰森·阿尔丁
汤森路透2015年全球创新百强名单是基于对专利相关的标准进行深入研究,寻找真正的创新企业。
克普克认为,这些情况或将发生变化,而它们的意义被低估了。
Manal al-Sharif is best known for challenging laws and mores that keep women down in her native country.
匹兹堡大学的研究小组从来自皮肤的干细胞培养出MCPs,一种可以作为心血管组织驱动器的特殊细胞。他们把这些细胞放在一种可以维持老鼠心脏的3-D支架上。在20天内,新的心脏开始以每分钟40~50次的速率搏动。
This post is in partnership with Entrepreneur. The article below was originally published atEntrepreneur.com.
斯坦福大学商学院校友的平均薪资最高,为19.5万美元,但总体而言,排在前15名之内的MBA课程在收入、职业发展和满意度方面都非常接近。除了一所学校外,这些商学院的校友平均薪资均超过15万美元,与就读MBA以前的收入相比,薪资上涨了大约100%。
3.数学家
Just because the job market is tough doesn't mean it's impossible. "You have to work harder at the job search," Challenger said.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

集体宿舍的“回归”是城市变迁的需要

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 据上周一发布的全球创新指数显示,中国成为首个跻身世界最具创新力经济体25强的中等收入国家。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 学者们对比特币的兴趣似乎也是前所未有的高涨。有190本关于比特币的白皮书在2014年发表,就在2013年,还只有55本。业余和专业作者们也纷纷为比特币著书立传:亚马逊列出了437本2014年出版的关于或涉及“比特币”的书籍,相比之下,2013年该数字为143本。【这是基于主题搜索的结果,因而其中包括《Bitcoin Bimbo 3:卧底警察科幻色情作品》(Bitcoin Bimbo 3: Undercover Cop Science Fiction Erotica)这种不大相干的结果】今年,体育迷们应该都注意到了首届比特币圣彼得堡碗比赛,这是北卡罗莱纳州立大学与中佛罗里达大学间的高校橄榄球季后赛。ESPN电视台迅速将BitPay以比特币形式支付的50万美元特许权费兑成了美元。
  • 新华社:为百姓减负 促社会公平——透视个税法修正案草案看点
  • 高通:农夫市集走进公司
  • 多地租房市场回暖 2019年租赁市场规模继续扩大
  • 因此,D型人格的人并不是缺乏社交兴趣,而是可能对别人感兴趣,但又害怕接近别人,因为他们害怕被拒绝。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 国家统计局:中国第一季度GDP同比增长6.4%
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 在韩国首都首尔,20%年龄介于19到49岁的女性承认她们为了改变样貌,接受过美容整形手术。
  • 毕业3年后的平均薪资和薪资涨幅是主要的标准,各自占到排行榜权重的20%。在排名前25名的商学院当中,大多在这些标准中至少有一项得分较高。如果去掉平均薪资和薪资涨幅这两项标准,排名前十的商学院大多仍排名前十。只有南洋商学院(Nanyang Business School)和中欧国际工商学院(China Europe International Business School)例外,它们在博士和研究这一项上表现不佳。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

多家国企拟挂牌转让地产子公司股权

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