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盘点:2016建材行业四大市场格局

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 市场需求减少 8月临沂商城灯具类发展景气指数回落 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

家居环保第一位 国内水性涂料引热议

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

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Additional reporting by Tom Hancock in Shanghai
It was 8.9% in 2015 and 9.9% in 2014. The expenditure accounted for 2.11% of last year's total GDP, compared with 2.06% in 2015.
201505/375574.shtml12岁的铃木瑟玟(Severn Suzuki)在1992年里约世界高峰会上,对全世界环境部长发出警语,她的演说简单扼要却直指人心,要求“大人们”对于环保要说到做到,否则就是对下一代的不负责任。
3.Flying Bicycles
One of the more notorious incidents was when Zhu Ling, a student at the prestigious Tsinghua University, was paralyzed when her roommate allegedly poisoned her with thallium in 1994.
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自2005年首次发布这一排行榜以来的一项最重大计算方法变化是,FT现在收集校友毕业后首份工作的信息。这些数据与他们当前的工作(毕业三年后)的信息一起使用。这使得FT可以计算出他们自毕业以来的工资增长(一个新的排名指标)以及他们的职业发展。
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In the past 12 months, more than 20 provinces have introduced policies to encourage students to start their own companies by allowing them to quit studying but keep their student status for two to eight years. However, many industry insiders insist that students complete their studies and work a few years first.
I'm amazed that Durant didn't get broken in half back in high school, weighing in at 6'9'', 185 lbs. Lucky for Durant, he doesn't make his money banging against big forwards. He relies on his nasty quick-shot jumper.
“An employee left a sticky note saying that he was quitting.”

Footnotes

  • 北京家居制造业外迁加速 京津家居创新产业城落户芦台
  • 房价尽管缓慢却持续不断地增长与近期数据走势一致,这些数据显示10月份对房地产投资有所增加,新一轮限购对录得的销售几乎没有任何负面影响。

Everyone has both, but people tend to be most attached to their “best” identity — the one that offers the most social status or privileges. Successful professionals, for example, often define their identities primarily through their careers.
乌龙事件澄清之后,《爱乐之城》制片人乔丹?霍罗威茨重新拿回麦克风说 “《月光男孩》获得了最佳影片奖”,而且强调“这不是玩笑”。
时间:2011-03-28 编辑:beck
亚太地区是地区国家共有的家园,我们不希望、也不愿意看到冷战思维下所谓“选边站队”的事情发生。
Bella is the youngest model on the list, having just turned 21 last month.
These concerns are real, but there are ways around them. For example, you can use your survival job to show employers that you're willing to work hard. And you can continue your job search after work.

东莞家具将走进美国高点 进一步打开美国市场

References

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